[99] Evidence for 604 being the first regnal year of Nebuchadnezzar

In the 3rd century BCE, a Babylonian priest named Berossus wrote a history of Babylonia which dealt with the lengths of reigns of kings during the Neo-Babylonian period (Nabopolassar to Nabonidus). Another historian, astronomer, and writer, Claudius Ptolemy (70-161 CE), put together his own listing of kings and dates of reigns for the same period, although whether he did it independently of Berossus we do not know. However he certianly did not find fault with the chronology of Berossus. The table of reigns is:

Name of King

Berossus

Ptolemy

BCE

Nabopolassar

21 years

21 years

625-605

Nebuchadnezzar

43 years

43 years

604-562

Evilmerodach

2 years

2 years

561-560

Neriglissar

4 years

4 years

559-556

Labashi-Marduk

9 months

n/a

556

Nabonidus

17 years

17 years

555-539

As you can see, both historians have listed Nebuchadnezzar's first year as 604. Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press) follows this Chronology. Six further confirmations of this Chronology for the kings of Babylon are detailed below. Much of this is taken from: www.freeminds.org/history/gentile.htm 

1. The Uruk King List, unearthed during an excavation campaign in 1959/60. Portions of it are eaten away, but what is still preserved agrees with Berossus' and Ptolemy's lengths of reigns of the first two kings, Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar.

2. We have the preserved Royal Inscriptions of Nabonidus. One, designated Nabon. No. 8, helps to establish the whole Neo-Babylonian era, since it states that from the 16th year of Nabopolassar to the accession year of Nabonidus was a period of 54 years (in complete agreement with Berossus and Ptolemy). The other Royal Inscription, Nabon. H 1 B, gives the lengths of all the reigns of the Neo-Babylonian kings up to the 9th year of Nabonidus (except for Labashi-Marduk, whose short reign is ignored). The figures given are again in complete harmony with Berossus and Ptolemy.

3. Thousands of business document texts that have come down to us from that period. There are dated tablets in existence from every year during the whole era. The records of a banking house centered in Babylon, the house of "The Sons of Egibi," verify each year of every king's reign during the period. This aligns exactly with Berossus, Ptolemy, the Chronicles, and the Royal records.

4. There are the preserved documents of Babylonian astronomers, termed "Astronomical Diaries." These have been designated VAT 4956 (kept in the Berlin Museum) and B.M. 32312. They contain dated astronomical positions which are not duplicated in the heavens for thousands of years, thus pinpointing with precise accuracy Nebuchadnezzar's nineteenth (sic) regnal year (in which he conquered Jerusalem--Jer. 52:12) as 586/585 BCE (sic) .

5. There are the synchronic links provided by comparing the chronology of Egypt to that of Babylon. There are at least four such dated connecting links, giving excellent proof of the correctness of Berossus' and Ptolemy's king-lists.

6. Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology, page 274, heading: JUDAH: "Archaeological evidence for the destruction of the kingdom in 586 B.C. comes from Jerusalem, Lachish, Tell Beit Mirsim, and other sites."

 

OFFICE USE BELOW...

Active: Present

Indicative

 

δίδωμι I give
δίδ-ως you give
δίδ-ωσι he gives
δίδ-ομεν we give
δίδ-οτε you give
διδ-όασιν they give

 

Subjunctive

 

διδ-ώ I should give
διδ-ής you should give
διδ-ή he should give
διδ-ώμεν we should give
διδ-ήτε you should give
διδ-ώσι; διδ-ώσιν they should give

 

Optative

 

διδ-οίην I would give
διδ-οίης you would give
διδ-οίη he would give
διδ-οίμεν we would give
διδ-οίτε you would give
διδ-οίεν they would give

 

Imperative

 

δός give!
δότω give!
δότε give!
δόντων give!

 


Active: Present

Infinitive

διδ-όναι to give

Participle

 

διδ-ούς giving
διδ-ούσα giving
διδ-όν giving

 


Active: Indicative Past

 

ε-δίδ-ουν I gave
ε-δίδ-ους you gave
ε-δίδ-ου he gave
ε-δίδ-ομεν we gave
ε-δίδ-οτε you gave
ε-δίδ-οσαν they gave

 


Active: Future

Indicative

 

δώ-σω I will give
δώ-σεις you will give
δώ-σει he will give
δώ-σομεν we will give
δώ-σετε you will give
δώ-σουσι; δώ-σουσιν they will give

 

Optative

 

δώ-σομι I would give
δώ-σοις you would give
δώ-σοι he would give
δώ-σοιμεν we would give
δώ-σοιτε you would give
δώ-σοιεν they would give

 


Active: Future

Infinitive

δώ-σειν to be going to give

Participle

 

δώ-σων going to give
δώ-σουσα going to give
δώ-σον going to give

 


Active: Aorist

Past

 

έ-δωκ-α I gave
έ-δωκ-ας you gave
έ-δωκ-ε; έ-δωκ-εν he gave
έ-δ-ομεν we gave
έ-δ-ετε you gave
έ-δ-οσαν they gave

 

Subjunctive

 

δ-ώ I should have given
δ-ώς you should have given
δ-ώ he should have given
δ-ώμεν we should have given
δ-ώτε you should have given
δ-ώσι; δ-ώσιν they should have given

 

Optative

 

δ-οίην I would have given
δ-οίης you would have given
δ-οίη he would have given
δ-οίμεν we would have given
δ-οίτε you would have given
δ-οίεν they would have given

 

Imperative

 

δ-ός give!
δ-ότω give!
δ-ότε give!
δ-όντων give!

 


Active: Aorist

Infinitive

δ-ούναι to give

Participle

 

δ-ούς given
δ-ούσα given
δ-όν given

 


Active: Perfect

Indicative

 

δέ-δω-κα I have given
δέ-δω-κας you have given
δέ-δω-κε; δέ-δω-κεν he have given
δε-δώ-καμεν we have given
δε-δώ-κατε you have given
δε-δώ-κασι; δε-δώ-κασιν they have given

 

Subjunctive

 

δε-δώ-κω I should have given
δε-δώ-κης you should have given
δε-δώ-κη he should have given
δε-δώ-κωμεν we should have given
δε-δώ-κητε you should have given
δε-δώ-κωσι; δε-δώ-κωσιν they should have given

 

Optative

 

δε-δώ-κοιμι I would have given
δε-δώ-κοις you would have given
δε-δώ-κοι he would have given
δε-δώ-κοιμεν we would have given
δε-δώ-κοιτε you would have given
δε-δώ-κοιεν they would have given

 


Active: Perfect

Infinitive

δε-δω-κέναι to have given

Participle

 

δε-δω-κώς given
δε-δω-κυία given
δε-δω-κός given

 


Active: Indicative Pluperfect

 

ε-δεδώ-κειν I had given
ε-δεδώ-κεις you had given
ε-δεδώ-κει he had given
ε-δεδώ-κειμεν we had given
ε-δεδώ-κειτε you had given
ε-δεδώ-κεσαν; ε-δεδώ-κεισαν they had given

 


Medium: Present

Indicative

 

δίδομαι
δίδ-οσαι
δίδ-οται
διδ-όμεθα
δίδ-οσθε
δίδ-ονται

 

Subjunctive

 

διδ-ώμαι
διδ-ή
διδ-ήται
διδ-ώμεθα
διδ-ήσθε
διδ-ώνται

 

Optative

 

διδ-οίμην
διδ-οίο
διδ-οίτο
διδ-οίμεθα
διδ-οίσθε
διδ-οίντο

 

Imperative

 

δίδ-οσο
διδ-όσθω
δίδ-οσθε
διδ-όσθων

 


Medium: Present

Infinitive

δίδ-οσθαι

Participle

 

διδ-ούμενος
διδ-ουμένη
διδ-ούμενον

 


Medium: Indicative Past

 

ε-διδ-όμην
ε-δίδ-οσο
ε-δίδ-οτο
ε-διδ-όμεθα
ε-δίδ-οσθε
ε-δίδ-οσθε

 


Medium: Future

Indicative

 

Optative

 

δω-σοίμην
δώ-σοιο
δώ-σοιτο
δω-σοίμεθα
δώ-σοισθε
δώ-σοιντο

 


Medium: Future

Infinitive

 

Participle

 

δω-σόμενος
δω-σομένη
δω-σόμενον

 


Medium: Aorist

Indicative

 

ε-δό-μην
έ-δου
έ-δ-οτο
ε-δό-μεθα
έ-δο-σθε
έ-δο-ντο

 

Subjunctive

 

δ-ώμαι
δ-ώ
δ-ώται
δ-ώμεθα
δ-ώσθε
δ-ώνται

 

Optative

 

δ-οίμην
δ-οίο
δ-οίτο
δ-οίμεθα
δ-οίσθε
δ-οίντο

 

Imperative

 

δ-ού
δ-όσθω
δ-όσθε
δ-όσθων

 


Medium: Aorist

Infinitive

δ-όσθαι

Participle

 

δ-όμενος
δ-ομένη
δ-όμενον

 


Medium: Perfect

Indicative

 

δέ-δο-μαι
δέ-δο-σαι
δέ-δο-ται
δε-δό-μεθα
δέ-δο-σθε
δέ-δο-νται

 

Subjunctive

 

δε-δο-μένος ώ
δε-δο-μένη ής
δε-δο-μένον ή
δε-δο-μένοι ώμεν
δε-δο-μέναι ήτε
δε-δο-μένα ώσι; δε-δο-μένα ώσιν

 

Optative

 

δε-δο-μένος είην
δε-δο-μένη είης
δε-δο-μένον είη
δε-δο-μένοι είμεν
δε-δο-μέναι είτε
δε-δο-μένα είεν

 

Imperative

 

δέ-δο-σο
δε-δό-σθω
δέ-δο-σθε
δε-δό-σθων

 


Medium: Perfect

Infinitive

δε-δό-σθαι

Participle

 

δε-δο-μένος
δε-δο-μένη
δε-δο-μένον

 


Medium: Indicative Pluperfect

 

ε-δε-δό-μην
ε-δέ-δο-σο
ε-δέ-δο-το
ε-δε-δό-μεθα
ε-δέ-δο-σθε
ε-δέ-δο-ντο

 


Passive: Present

Indicative

 

δίδομαι I am given
δίδ-οσαι you are given
δίδ-οται he is given
διδ-όμεθα we are given
δίδ-οσθε you are given
δίδ-ονται they are given

 

Subjunctive

 

διδ-ώμαι I should be given
διδ-ή you should be given
διδ-ήται he should be given
διδ-ώμεθα we should be given
διδ-ήσθε you should be given
διδ-ώνται they should be given

 

Optative

 

διδ-οίμην I could be given
διδ-οίο you could be given
διδ-οίτο he could be given
διδ-οίμεθα we could be given
διδ-οίσθε you could be given
διδ-οίντο they could be given

 

Imperative

 

δίδ-οσο be given!
διδ-όσθω be given!
δίδ-οσθε be given!
διδ-όσθων be given!

 


Passive: Present

Infinitive

δίδ-οσθαι

Participle

 

διδ-ούμενος
διδ-ουμένη
διδ-ούμενον

 


Passive: Indicative Past

 

ε-διδ-όμην
ε-δίδ-οσο
ε-δίδ-οτο
ε-διδ-όμεθα
ε-δίδ-οσθε
ε-δίδ-οσθε

 


Passive: Future

Indicative

 

Optative

 


Passive: Future

Infinitive

 

Participle

 


Passive: Aorist

Indicative

 

ε-δό-θην
ε-δό-θης
ε-δό-θη
ε-δό-θημεν
ε-δό-θητε
ε-δό-θησαν

 

Subjunctive

 

δο-θώ
δο-θής
δο-θή
δο-θώμεν
δο-θήτε
δο-θώσι; δο-θώσιν

 

Optative

 

δο-θείην
δο-θείης
δο-θείη
δο-θείμεν
δο-θείτε
δο-θείεν

 

Imperative

 

δό-θητι
δο-θήτω
δό-θητε
δο-θέντων

 


Passive: Aorist

Infinitive

δο-θήναι

Participle

 

δο-θείς
δο-θείσα
δο-θέν

 


Passive: Perfect

Infinitive

δε-δό-σθαι

Participle

 

δε-δο-μένος
δε-δο-μένη
δε-δο-μένον

 


Passive: Indicative Pluperfect

 

ε-δε-δό-μην
ε-δέ-δο-σο
ε-δέ-δο-το
ε-δε-δό-μεθα
ε-δέ-δο-σθε